Breaking down the permaculture principles from “Permaculture Ethics & Principles” from New England Permaculture Homestead.
Basically, the bigger the system you have, the more energy it takes to manage it. Think about the big farms you see. They cannot possibly be maintained by 1-2 people. They need heavy machinery and likely many workers to keep the system going. We need to downsize. If you have a huge farm, it is also often a monoculture. Rather than using an inefficient monoculture, plant many things together in a smaller, more intensive system for a much higher yield.
Perennial-Perennial plants can be planted once and will produce for many years. Once you get them in the ground and established, they require far less work than annuals. They grow slower than annuals so they require less nutrients from the soil. They are hardier and will better tolerate things like drought or over watering. You can also plant them together with their companion perennials and they will do even better. …
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